Your ground cable is too tight because your replacement battery has the polarity of the battery posts reversed. So the cable has to stretch across an eight inch wide box to make a connection. Luckily the motor will rock towards the battery instead of away from it. Still the cable won't pull out off the water pump bolt; instead the entire post will be ripped off of the battery, which could cause an electrical fire.
The hose going to the valve cover from the air cleaner is there to allow clean filtered air to enter the motor to replace what is being sucked out of the crankcase by engine vacuum through the PCV . If you see that hose collapse it is time to change the fiber filter inside the air cleaner as it is obstructed.
Your bypass hose (the hose above the water pump that goes into the front cross-over coolant passage in the intake manifold) looks fine. The BBC has a bypass hose that bypasses the thermostat; the SBC uses an additional hole cast into the block and a drilled into the water pump that connects the water pump to the coolant passages.
The wire that sends voltage to the temperature sender looks ok, but it can be lengthened if need be by butt splicing in a bit more wire. It, the temperature gauge, works by measuring voltage to ground. So like your oil pressure gauge, and your gas gauge, they are just volt meters measuring the twelve volts nominal power to ground.
As such a good ground is essential. There are three other un-insulated braided copper flat cables that connect the frame to the engine, the engine to the body and the engine to the dash ground under the dash. This is in addition to the ground cable from the battery to the engine block (which has to be free of paint to make a good ground). These cables are rarely replaced when a motor is pulled and replaced by amateur mechanics.
Every time some one posts "My gas gauge doesn't work"; we all yell back check the grounds! Same goes for tail lamps, or brake light problems.