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Spin it up to 10,000 RPM. The higher you rev any engine the more power strokes per minute. More power strokes is equal to more power. If you had a 283 spinning at 4,500 and you reved it to 9,000 then it should equal a 566 cube BBC running at 4,500 RPM (It won't but in theory all things being equal it would).
You can add more oxygen that will support more fuel being burnt with Nitrous Oxide. Rule of thumb is half of your existing horsepower is considered the maximum you can safely add. So a 75 horse shot will probably be about it for your 190 horse 283.
Another way of adding air is with a blower or turbo charger (the only difference between the two is in how the blower is actually powered: with the turbo using the heat of the exhaust gasses to power the compressor without taking any energy from the engine; and a super charger drawing its power from the crank shaft by way of a belt). Once again you are limited by the 283. With any SBC can not bolt an any Roots blower bigger than a 8-71 as it won't fit, and your crank won't support a huge boost from either a roots or a a centripetal blower either. With all blowers you have to remove the heat of compression from the intake charge before putting it into the engine or risk detonation just from the added heat. Also stuffing in additional air raises your static compression that wlll further require a matching rise in the octane rating of the fuel you burn.
The cheapest solution to your problem is a bigger small block Chevy, either a 350, a 383 or a 406. Bigger is better, and any of them look just fine under your 283 air cleaner (the early engines didn't hae the displacement on the air cleaner it was on their solid valve covers). In fact 90% of the population can't tell a 406 from a 383; and a 383 looks just like a 283/327/350 small block engine. You can disguise a modern aluminum headed engine to look like an earlier oil fill tube engine with the choice of the correct parts to make power while looking stone stock.
Back when the NHRA took away everyone's Nitromethane, racers who where wanting more power where forced to double their blown alcohol motors to obtain the previous power obtained with one motor on Nitromethane. So you began to see twin SBC dragsters like the Freight Train racing every week were he formally ran only one engine on nitromethane.
Of course you can add nitro to your gas tank:
But it will probably cost you more than the $58 a gallon price as your engine will not be happy burning rocket fuel. any tried back in the day and discovered that the engine made power right up until it exploded like one of those old rocket trials of Wernher von Braun's.